The pressure, usually measured in pounds per square inch (psi), at the bottom of the hole. This pressure may be calculated in a static, fluid-filled wellbore with the equation:
BHP = MW * Depth * 0.052
where BHP is the bottomhole pressure in pounds per square inch, MW is the mud weight in pounds per gallon, Depth is the true vertical depth in feet, and 0.052 is a conversion factor if these units of measure are used. For circulating wellbores, the BHP increases by the amount of fluid friction in the annulus. The BHP gradient should exceed the formationpressure gradient to avoid an influx of formation fluid into the wellbore.
On the other hand, if BHP (including the added fluid friction pressure of a flowing fluid) is too high, a weak formation may fracture and cause a loss of wellbore fluids. The loss of fluid to one formation may be followed by the influx of fluid from another formation.