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1. n. [Geology]
A relatively impermeable rock, commonly shale, anhydrite or salt, that forms a barrier or cap above and around reservoir rock such that fluids cannot migrate beyond the reservoir. A seal is a critical component of a complete petroleum system. The permeability of a seal capable of retaining fluids through geologic time is ~ 10-6 to 10-8 darcies.
Synonyms: cap rock, caprock