Oilfield Glossary
Oilfield Glossary
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Searched for "LS" in All Fields (1862 result(s) found)

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n 6FF40


abandonment costs active sulfide amplitude anomaly arithmetic mean
abrasion test additivity anhydrite aromatic content test
abrasive jetting adjustable choke aniline point test aromatic hydrocarbon
absolute age advective transport modeling anion array induction
absorption aeolotropy anionic array laterolog
absorption oil afterflow anisotropic array propagation resistivity
accelerator AGC time constant anisotropy array sonic
accelerator source air cut mud annular flow ASP flooding
accuracy air gun annular gas flow asphaltenes
acetic acid air shooting annular velocity asphaltic crude
acid effect air wave annulus asphaltic mud additive
acid tank air-cut mud anomalous ASTM
acoustic alkaline flooding anomaly atmospheric corrosion
acoustic coupler alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding anticlinal attenuation
acoustic log allochthonous anticline attenuation resistivity
acoustic mode allogenic antifoam audio measurement
acoustic transducer alpha processing antifoam agent authigenic
acoustic velocity altered zone antisqueeze autochthon
acrylamide acrylate polymer aluminum activation log API autochthonous
acrylamide polymer ambient temperature API unit autocorrelation
acrylamide-acrylate polymer amides appraisal average reservoir pressure
acrylate polymer amines Archie equation azimuth
activation log


back off benthic blind box brake
back pressure bentonite blind ram break circulation
back wash bentonite equivalent blind zone break out
backoff BHA block-and-bleed breaker
backward multiple-contact test BHCT blow down breakout
backwash BHST blow out breakout tongs
bactericide bid and study agreement blow out preventer breakthrough
bad hole big hole charge blowdown bridge off
balanced activity oil mud big-hole charge blowout preventer bridge-off
balanced-activity oil mud bilinear flow BLPD bridging agent
ball catcher bimetallic corrosion Boltzmann probability distribution bridging material
ball diverter bimetallism Boolean simulation Briggs color cube
ball sealers bioaccumulation BOP bright spot
barefoot biocide BOP stack brine
barefoot completion bioconcentration BOPD broach
barite biodegradation borehole gravity BS&W
barite plug biostratigraphic borehole televiewer bubble effect
barrel pump biostratigraphy Born method bubble point
base map Biot theory bottle test bubblepoint
base oil birefringence bottomhole assembly bucking coil
basket bit bottomhole circulating temperature buffer
basket flowmeter bit record bottomhole gas separator bulk relaxation
batch mixer bit resistivity bottomhole heater bullhead
Bayesian inference bit trip bottomhole shut in buoyancy
bead tracer black list bottomhole shut-in burn over
bel bland coring fluid bottomhole static temperature burn-over
bell nipple blank pipe bound fluid butt weld
beneficiate blasting cap box button resistivity
beneficiation blended crude Boyle's Law Double Cell BWPD
Benioff zone blender Boyle's Law Single Cell


cable chalk coding contour map
cable-tool drilling channel COFCAW contract depth
cake thickness channeling cogeneration control valve
calcium carbonate plug check shot survey coherence controlled time survey
calcium chloride check-shot survey coherence filtering controller
calcium hydroxide chelating agent coherence map convection
calcium naphthenate chemical diverter coherence vector map convolution
calcium oxide chemical flooding coherent detection convolve
calcium sulfate chemical injection coiled tubing core
calibration chemical oxygen demand coiled tubing completion coreflooding
caliper log chemical potential coiled tubing drilling corkscrew hole
cap chert coiled tubing string correlate
capacitance log cherty coiled tubing unit correlation log
capacity factor (of a valve), Cv, Kv chlorite coke correlogram
capillary tube viscometer Christmas tree cold heavy oil production with sand corrosion coupon
carbide lag test chrome lignite cold production corrosion fatigue
carbon density chrome tubing colloid corrosion inhibitor
carbonate chronostratigraphic chart colloidal corrosion rate
carbonate ion churn flow colloidal solids corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA)
carbonate scale CI colloidal suspension cosurfactant
carrier fluid circle shooting combination string coupling
carrying capacity circulate out come out of the hole coupon
cartridge circulation sub command trailer CPMG
casing circulation system commingled flow creaming
casing centralizer circulation valve common depth point cresting
casing collar citric acid common reflection point critical angle
casing grade clastic intrusion compatibility crosscorrelation flowmeter
casing patch clastic sediment compensated neutron log crossflow
casing potential profile clathrate completion quality (CQ) crossplot
casing spool clay composite log crossplot porosity
casing string clay bound water compositional fluid analysis crosswell electromagnetic tomography
casing test clay extender compressor plant crosswell reflection tomography
casing-potential profile clay water interaction Compton scattering crosswell seismic tomography
cat line clay-bound water conceptual model crosswell tomography
cataclasite clay-water interaction concession crushed zone
cataclastic clean condensate crust
cathodic protection clean out condensed section crustal magnetic field
catline cleanout conductance crystallization temperature
catwalk closed chamber testing conductive rock matrix model cubic packing
caustic extraction test closed in well conductivity curve
cave effect closed mud system conductor pipe curve matching
CDP closed-chamber testing coning cushion
cellar closed-in well connate water cut and thread fishing technique
cement cloud point connection cut oil
cement additive cloud point glycol connection gas cut-and-thread fishing technique
cement bond log coal contact cuttings
cement evaluation log coalesce contact angle cuttings lifting
cementing coalescence continuous phase cyclic steam injection
centralizer coating contour cyclothem
centrifuge coating flaw contour interval cylinder


damage depth-derived directional variograms drilled solids
damaged zone derrick directional well driller
dart derrick floor directivity drill-in fluid
data rate derrickman dirty drilling break
datum level desander dispersant drilling detergent
DD desiccant dispersion drilling fluid
Dean-Stark extraction detergency displacement drilling foreman
deconvolution deterministic methods disposal well drilling mud
deflector flowmeter detonate distributed temperature log drilling rig
deflocculate detonator distributed-temperature log drilling-fluid engineer
deflocculated mud development diverter flowmeter drillpipe conveyed
deflocculation deviated drilling diverting agent drillship
defoamer deviation dog collar drillstem
dehydrate dextral dog house drillstem test
deliverability test diagenesis dog leg drillstring
delta rho diagenetic doghouse drop sub
delta t diamond bit dogleg dry bed
delta t stretch diesel oil mud dope dry forward combustion
delta-t stretch diesel-oil mud double refraction dry gas
demulsifier differential pressure downhole safety valve (DSV) dry hole
densimeter differential pressure sticking drainage area dry oil
density contrast differential sticking drainage volume DST
density measurement diffraction stack drawdown test DST pressure chart
dephasing diffusion drift dual water
depositional system diffusion relaxation drill bit dummy valve
depth datum dilution water drill collar dynamic fluid level
depth derived dip fault drill in fluid dynamic positioning
depth mark direct emulsifier drill ship dynamic seal
depth matched direct indicating viscometer drill solids dynamic-aging test
depth of investigation direct-indicating viscometer drill string dynamometer card
depth wheel directional drilling drillable packer


eccentric electrical anisotropy embrittlement erode
eccentricity electrical conductivity emulsifier erosion
ECD electrical coupon emulsion erosion corrosion
echo spacing electrical log emulsion flow erosion-corrosion
eddy current measurement electrical resistance probe emulsion mud ES test
eddy-current measurement electrical stability test encapsulation escape line
EDTA electrical survey enhanced diffusion evaporite
effective medium theory electrode resistivity enhanced oil recovery evaporitic
effective porosity electromagnetic method environmental corrections exploration
effective shot density electromagnetic propagation EOR extended reach drilling
elastic electromagnetic propagation measurement equalizing valve extended-reach drilling
elastic anisotropy electromagnetic thickness equation of state external cutter
elastic constants elemental capture spectroscopy equivalent circulating density external disturbance field
elastic neutron scattering elevator ERD external phase


fabric fingering flow regime forward multiple-contact test
facies modeling fire flooding flower structure fossil
fall off test fireflooding flowline manifold Fourier analysis
falloff test first reading flowmeter Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Fann viscometer fish fluid density log FPSO
fast diffusion fishing fluid interface log frac balls
fatty acid fishing bell fluid loss control frac crew
fatty acid soap fishing diagram fluid loss control material frac fluid
fatty-acid soap fishing neck fluid pound frac job
fault fishing tool fluid tester fractal
fee simple interest five spot fluid-density log fractal networks
fee-simple interest five-spot fluid-interface log fracture
feldspar flag fluid-loss additive fracture acidizing
felsic flapper valve fluid-loss control fracture networks
Fermat's principle flare fluid-loss-control material fracturing fluid
ferrous sulfide flat gels fluoboric acid fracturing sleeve
field FLNG flushed zone free fluid
field weld float shoe flux leakage free induction decay
fill cement flocculant foam breaker free water
film forming amine flocculate foamed cement free water knockout
film-forming amine flocculation foaming agent free-induction decay
filter cake thickness flooding pattern fold free-water knockout
filtercake thickness flooding surface footprint frequency
filter-cake thickness flow after flow formation damage friction reducer
filtrate tracer flow assurance formation evaluation froth flow
final flow period flow check formation evaluation while drilling full waveform
final shut in period flow meter formation factor fullbore spinner
final shut-in period flow model formic acid FWKO
fines migration flow profile forward modeling


galvanic anodes gauge ring geophone pattern granular lost circulation material
gamma ray log Gaussian collocated cosimulation geopressure gradient granular lost-circulation material
gas anchor gel strength geostatic pressure grapple
gas coning gels geostatistical modeling gravel pack log
gas drive generation geostatistics gravel-pack log
gas hydrate geochemical log Geronimo line gravity toolface
gas injection geochemistry gilsonite gray list
gas lift mandrel geochronology gin pole green list
gas lift valve geologic map glass jar test grey list
gas migration geologic time scale Global Positioning System grind
gas processing plant geomagnetic polarity reversal glycol group velocity
gas separator geomagnetic polarity time scale glycol dehydrator guar gum
gas well geomagnetic secular variation GPS guard log
gas-cut mud geomechanics GPTS gumbo
gasdrive geometrical factor grain density gun
gas-lift mandrel geophone granite gun barrel
gas-lift valve geophone array granular LCM gyp mud
gathering system


H2S high shot density gun hook load hydrocarbon indicator
halite high side toolface horizontal drilling hydrocarbon kitchen
hammer union high temperature completions horizontal resistivity hydrofluoric acid
hardbanding high-gravity solids hostile environment hydrogen blistering
hardness ion high-pressure, high-temperature hot lime hydrogen embrittlement
head high-pressure, high-temperature filtration test hot oiler hydrogen probe
head wave high-shot density gun hot waterflooding hydrogen sulfide
header highside toolface HPHT hydrophile-lipophile balance number
heater high-side toolface HPHT filtration test hydrophilic
heater treater high-specific-gravity solids HSE hydrophobic
heavy metal HLB number humping hydrophone
heavy oil holdup HWDP hydrostatic bailer
heavyweight drillpipe holdup image hydraulic bypass hydrostatic head
held by production holdup log hydraulic centralizer hydrostatic pressure
Herschel Bulkley fluid holdup map hydraulic fracture monitoring hydrothermal
Herschel-Bulkley fluid hole cleaning hydraulic fracturing hydrothermal alteration
HF homogeneous formation hydraulic power pack hygroscopic
HGS hook


ideal gas induced particle plugging injectite invert emulsion oil mud
IEOM induced polarization injectivity test inverted five spot
igneous induction inside blowout preventer inverted five-spot
illite inert sulfide inside-out air seat test invert-emulsion oil mud
IM infill drilling in-situ combustion IO
image inhibitor in-situ fluid analysis ion exchange
image well initial flow period in-situ viscosity evaluation IP
impedance initial shut in period instrumented pig IPA
impeller initial shut-in period interference testing iron carbonate
impermeable barrier injection line intermittent gas lift iron oxide
impressed current anodes injection mandrel internal phase iron stabilizer
improved oil recovery injection pattern interpolation iron sulfide
impulse activation injection pressure interpretation iron-oxidizing bacteria
impulsive seismic data injection pulsed neutron log interstitial water isochronal test
in situ combustion injection pump interwell tomography isomerized olefin
in situ fluid analysis injection water invaded zone isopropanol
in situ viscosity evaluation injection well inverse isopropyl alcohol
inclination injection well testing inverse filter iterative forward modeling
indicator models injection/pulsed neutron log inversion iterative methods
induced gamma ray spectroscopy injection-well testing invert emulsion


J factor jar test jet mixer J-slot
J slot jet jet perforating junk
jar jet hopper joint


kaolinite kelly bushing keyseat kill line
KB kelly hose kick Kirchhoff equation
kelly kelly spinner


lag LCM liquid saturation method loose emulsion
lag gas lean gas lithologic contact lost circulation
lag time leonardite lithosphere lost circulation material
laminar flow life of the well lithostatic pressure lost returns
lamination lifting frame load cell lost-circulation material
landing collar lifting sub load oil low colloid oil mud
landing nipple lignite local magnetic interference low velocity layer
LAO limestone porosity unit local probe low-colloid oil mud
laser diffraction limited entry log low-velocity layer
last reading line drive logging tool LS
lateral linear alphaolefin logging unit lubricant
latex liner logging while drilling lubricator
layer cake geometry liner patch logging-while-drilling LWD
layer-cake geometry lipophilic long spacing sonic log lyophobic
lbm/bbl liquefied petroleum gas long-spacing sonic log lyophobic colloid
LC50 liquid desiccant


mafic MD mineral interest mud in
magnetic flux leakage mean mineralogy mud in sample
magnetic mud measured depth minimum restriction mud out sample
magnetic reversal sequence measurement after drilling miscible displacement mud oven
magnetic toolface measurements while drilling mist drilling mud pit
magnetic-flux leakage measurements-while-drilling mist flow mud program
magnetics measuring tank MMS mud pulse telemetry
make a connection mechanical sticking mobility buffer mud report
make up medium induction model mud return line
makeup tongs membrane potential modified isochronal test mud tracer
managed pressure drilling mercury displacement method modulus of elasticity mud up
mantle metamorphic monopole mud weight
map methane hydrate Monte Carlo risk analysis mud-aging cell
marine flooding surface methylene blue test montmorillonite mudding off
marker bed mica moon pool mudding up
marketing agreement micellar polymer flooding mousehole mud-in sample
marl micellar-polymer flooding moveout mud-out sample
Marsh funnel microemulsion mpy mudrock
mass balance microgel MRS multilateral
mast micropaleontology MSDS multipass method
mast unit microporosity mud multiphase flow
master valve microseismic monitoring mud acid multiphase fluid flow
material balance equation midoceanic ridge mud aging cell multiphase holdup log
Material Safety Data Sheet migrate mud cell multiphase pump
material-balance equation migration mud cleaner multiple rate tests
matrix stimulation milk emulsion mud mud cup multiple-rate tests
maturation mill mud density multishot survey
maturity mill out mud engineer multiwell pad
maximum flooding surface milling mud hopper mutual solvent
MBT test mineral mud house MWD


n naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) neutron porosity non-Newtonian fluid
NACE neritic neutron-activation log nonparticipating royalty
naphthene base crude oil nest Newtonian fluid normal pressure
naphthene-base crude oil nested fractal structures nipple normality
native solids mud neural networks nitrogen cushion NPDES
native-solids mud neutralization nitrogen injection NRM
natural fracture neutralize nitrogen unit nuclear magnetic resonance measurement
natural gamma ray spectroscopy neutron activation log noise log numerical methods
natural gas neutron capture non-Darcy flow numerical model
natural remanent magnetism neutron generator


OCMA oil in water emulsion oil-wet optical probe
octahedral layer oil pool OOC organic acid
octyl alcohol oil sand open flow potential organophilic clay
off pattern well oil well open hole O-ring
off-pattern well oil wet open-flow potential OSHA
offset well oil-base mud openhole osmosis
oil and gas lease oil-emulsion mud openhole completion OSPAR
oil and gas separator oilfield openhole packer oxide closure model
oil base mud oilfield battery openhole test oxide-closure model
oil emulsion mud oil-in-water emulsion operating agreement oxygen activation
oil field oil-mud emulsifier operator


pack off petal basket flowmeter polyglycerol primary migration
packer petroleum systems modeling polymer flooding primary production
packer fluid petrophysical model polyol primary recovery
packoff petrophysical rock type polyolefin producing formation
pad phase shift resistivity polyphosphates production bonus
PAG phase velocity polysaccharide production log
paid up lease phase velocity log POOH production service contract
paid-up lease phase-shift resistivity pore gas profile modification
paleontology phase-velocity log porosimeter progressive cavity pumping system
paludal pickle porosity progressive gels
palynology pickling fluid porosity exponent propagation constant
PAO pig porous propagation time
paraffin base crude oil pill portland cement clinker proppant
paraffin control pin positive displacement motor propylene glycol normal propyl ether
paraffin inhibitor pipe dope potassium prospect
paraffin-base crude oil pipe rack potassium ion pseudogeometrical factor
PARCOM pipe trip potassium mud pseudoplastic
particle size distribution pipeline gas pounds per barrel pull out of the hole
particle-size distribution pipeline oil pour point pulling tool
pay PIT ppb pulse echo
payout pitch-and-lead precipitate pulsed neutron holdup log
PDM plankton precision pulsed neutron spectroscopy log
peak plate tectonics preflush pulsed neutron spectroscopy measurement
PEF plug flow prehydrate pulsed-neutron holdup log
peptized clay plunger lift preservative pulse-echo
perforate PNP preserved core pumping time
perforated interval point bar pressure buildup analysis pumping well
perforating charge Poisson's ratio pressure falloff pumping well tests
perforating gun polar pressure integrity test pusher
permanent datum polarization horn pressure storage tank PVT
permanent well monitoring polyacrylate pressure transient test pyrophosphate
permeability polyalkalene glycol pressure transient well tests pyrrhotite
permeameter polyalphaolefin pressure-transient well tests


Q quality assurance quat amine quick look
QA quartz quick lime quicklook


R signal recovery resin ring resistivity
racking back pipe reducing agent resistivity RM
radial processing reef resistivity log rock
radial refraction reefal resolution matched Rockwell hardness number
radio silence reel response matched Rockwell hardness testing
radioactive tracer reel back tension retort method rod elevators
radioactive tracer log reel back-tension retort solids roll a tank
radioactive-tracer log reflection tomography retort test roller cone bit
radius of investigation refractive index reverse circulating valve roller-cone bit
ram blowout preventer refracturing reverse circulation rolling aging test
rate dependent skin effect relative age reverse-circulating valve rolling-aging test
rate-dependent skin effect relative dielectric constant reversing out rotary bushing
rathole relative dielectric permittivity RH rotary hose
ray path relative filtrate volume RH rotary steerable system
raypath relative humidity rheological rotary table
RCD reservoir characterization rheology rotating control device
real time data reservoir characterization model rheology modifier roughneck
real-time data reservoir description rhombohedral packing round trip
receiver reservoir drive mechanisms Rich-azimuth towed-streamer acquisition R-signal
reciprocate reservoir height rig run in hole
record reservoir simulation rig floor running squeeze
recorded data reservoir-drive mechanisms RIH running tool


s.g. sequestering agent slowness staged fracturing
safety head setting tool slowness time coherence stand
safety joint shadow zone slowness-time coherence standard batch
sag shale sludge standoff
SAGD shaly slug static pressure
salt shaped charge slug flow statistics
salt dome shear seal BOP slugging compound steam
salt proximity survey shear stock slugging pill steam chamber
saltwater mud shear strength measurement test smectite steam flood
sand shear wave smectite clay steam-assisted gravity drainage
sand bailer shearometer Snell's law steamflood
sand cleanout shear-seal BOP snub stearate
sand lifting shear-strength measurement test snubbing steerable motor
sandface sheave snubbing basket step profile
sandstone petrography shifting tool soap stochastic modeling
sandstone porosity unit shoot a well soda ash Stoneley wave
SARA analysis shoulder bed sodium carbonate stopple
saturated solution side scan sonar sodium polyacrylate storm packer
saturation equation siderite sodium silicate strainer
saturation exponent side-scan sonar solubility stratified flow
saver sub sidewall sonde error streamer
scale sidewall core sonic log stress corrosion cracking
scale inhibitor sigma sonic measurement stress-corrosion cracking
scale inhibitor squeeze signal to noise ratio sonolog stripping
scale-inhibitor squeeze signal-to-noise ratio sorting strokes per minute
scattergram signature deconvolution sour corrosion structural shale
SCC silica layer sour gas structural steering
scintillation detector silicate anion source rock stuck
scraper silicate mineral Soxhlet extractor stuck pipe
scrubber silicate mud SP stylolite
seal assembly siliciclastic sediment SPA styrene
seals single pass method space frequency domain sub
seating nipple single shot survey space out subsalt
seawater mud single tank composite sample space-frequency domain suction pit
secondary migration single-pass method spacer fluid sulfate reducing bacteria
secondary porosity index single-shot survey spacing sulfate-reducing bacteria
secondary production single-tank composite sample specific gravity sulfide
secondary recovery sinistral spherical harmonic sulfide stress cracking
secondary-porosity index sinker bar spill point summation of fluids method
sediment sintered spinner flowmeter superposition in space
sedimentary sized calcium carbonate spinner reversal superposition in time
seismic interpretation sized salt spinning chain supply vessel
seismic modeling slaked lime spiral borehole surface pressure
seismic reflection tomography slant hole rig spontaneous potential surfactant
seismic stratigraphy slant rig spooler surfactant flooding
seismic trace slant-hole rig spot surfactant-alternating gas
seismic velocity slickline spotting swab
seismometer slide spotting fluid sweep efficiency
selective firing slim hole well spreading loss sweet corrosion
selective perforating slimhole well squeeze cementing sweet crude
semblance slim-tube test SRB swivel
sensitivity slips stab synthetic base fluid
separator sloughing shale stability meter synthetic base mud
sepiolite slow formation stabilization synthetic-base fluid
sequence stratigraphy slowing-down time stabilized gas well synthetic-base mud


tail buoy TG TM transverse magnetic mode
tail cement thermal capture tongs transverse relaxation
Taitel Dukler thermal gradient tool string travel joint
Taitel-Dukler thermal neutron absorber toolface traveling block
tall oil thermal neutron porosity measurement toolpusher treater
tally thermal recovery top drive treatment fluid
tangential wave thermal simulation top entry trip
tank battery thixotropy topdrive trip gas
tank bottoms thorium tortuosity trip out
tank dike thread protector total porosity trip pill
tank table three phase separator total solids tripping pipe
tanker three-phase separator tracer tube wave
tapered string through flowline (TFL) tracer ejector measurement tubing conveyed perforating
TCP through tubing gun tracer loss measurement tubing displacement
TDEM through-conduit tracer measurement tubing seal assembly
TE through-flowline (TFL) tracer-ejector measurement tubing testing tool
technical evaluation agreement through-tubing gun tracer-loss measurement tubing-conveyed perforating
tectonics TI Trans-Alaska Pipeline System turbidity current
telemetry tight transient drainage radius turbulent flow
TEM tight emulsion transient electromagnetic method turnkey
temperature gradient tight hole transient rate and pressure test analysis twist off
temperature log time domain electromagnetic method transient-pressure response twist-off
temperature survey time lapse transient-rate and pressure-test analysis two pass method
TEOR timed slug analysis transition flow two phase separator
term lease time-domain electromagnetic method transmission tomography two-pass method
test separator timed-slug analysis transverse electric mode two-phase separator
tetrahedral layer time-lapse transverse isotropy


ultrasonic caliper underream unitization unsteady state
ultrasonic measurement undersaturated fluid unitized production uranium
unconfined compressive strength uniaxial compressive strength unloading valve


variogram velocity shot measurement vertical resistivity viscous oil
varve velocity string vertical resolution vitrinite
vee door velocity survey vertical seismic profile vitrinite reflectance
vee-door velocity-shot measurement vibratory seismic data volumetric displacement efficiency
velocity vent plug viscosity volumetric efficiency
velocity image verification viscosity and gel-strength test volumetric sweep efficiency
velocity map versenate viscous fingering VSP


wait on cement waterflooding well interference wing valve
wait time water-flow log well interference testing Winsor phase behavior
wall sticking water-mud emulsifier well log wiper trip
Walsh-Hadamard transform water-wet well placement wire clamp
water block wavelet well plan wireline
water clarification wavelet extraction well shoot wireline formation test
water coning weevil wellhead wireline log
water cushion weight well-interference testing WOC
water flood weight indicator wet combustion work basket
water flow log weight material wettability working interest
water mud emulsifier weighting agent whole core worm
water wet weighting material Wide-azimuth towed-streamer acquisition wrench fault
waterflood well control


X signal XC polymer X-signal xylene
xanthan gum X-ray diffraction




zero zero gels zero-zero gels zonal zone